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Preparing the Surface For Painting


Preparation is the key to a good paint job. Taking the time to repair, clean, and prime your walls will guarantee a longer- lasting paint finish. Because dirt and grease will interfere with a good, smooth paint finish, every surface should be thoroughly cleaned before painting.

Donít rush the preparation process and youíll be rewarded with a beautiful, durable finish once the project is completed.

 

SURFACE PREPARATION AT A GLANCE

SURFACE TO BE PIUNTED

PREPARATION

PRIMER

Unfinished wood 1. Sand surface smooth.
2. Wipe with tack cloth to remove grit.
3. Apply primer.
 
Latex enamel undercoat
Painted wood 1. Clean surface to remove grease and dirt,
2. Rinse with clear water; let dry.
3. Sand surface lightly to degloss. smooth, and remove loose paint.
4. Wipe with tack cloth to remove grit.
5. Apply primer to bare wood spots.
Latex enamel undercoat only on areas of bare wood
Unfinished wallboard 1. Dust with hand broom, or vacuum with soft brush.
2. Apply primer.
Flat latex primer
Painted wallboard 1. Clean surface to remove dirt and grease.
2. Rinse with clear water: allow to dry.
3. Apply primer only if making a dramatic color change.
Not necessary, except when painting over spot repairs or dark or strong color; then use flat latex primer
Unpainted plaster 1. Sand surfaces as necessary.
2. Dust with hand broom, or vacuum with soft brush.
Polyvinyl acrylic primer
Painted plaster 1. Clean surface to remove dirt and grease.
2. Rinse with clear water; allow to dry.
3. Repair any cracks or holes,
4. Sand surface to smooth and degloss.
Not necessary, except on spot repairs or when painting over strong or dark colors: then use polyvinyl acrylic primer

 

Clean the Surface First


To avoid messy streaking, begin washing your walls from the bottom up. While you can use common household cleansers for the job, many professional painters use a TSP (trisodium phosphate) solution.
 

Wearing rubber gloves, wash with a damp, not dripping, sponge. Rinse thoroughly with clean water. After the surface is dry, sand lightly where need; then wipe the surface with a clean cloth.
 

As you clean, you will discover any small problems, like cracks or stains, on the surface. Make those repairs before beginning to paint.

 

Fixing Common Problems


WATER STAINS
Problem: Unsightly water or rust stains require immediate attention because they may indicate a leak somewhere.

Solution: Check for leaking pipes or dam aged Hashing on the roof. Before you paint, repair the leak. If the wall surface is soft or crumbling, repair the area. To seal and cover a water-stained area that is not otherwise damaged, use a stain-sealing primer that contains shellac. If left unsealed, the stain will eventually show through your new paint job.

 

COLORED STAINS
Problem: Black marks and other wall stains like crayon or marker are not always easily removed.
Solution: Apply a stain remover to a clean, dry cloth and rub lightly on the stain. Cover any stain that is not completely removed with a stain-sealing primer that contains shellac.

 

MILDEW AND MOLD
Problem: Because mold and mildew grow in damp areas, check kitchen and bathroom surfaces carefully.
Solution: Test the stain by washing it with water and detergent. If it is mildew, it will not wash away. Wash the area with a solution of one part chlorine bleach to four parts water, which will kill the mildew spores. Scrub with a soft-bristle brush. Then wash the mildew away with a TSP solution, rinse with clear water, and allow the area to dry thoroughly before painting.

 

PEELING PAINT
Problem: Peeling paint occurs for a number of reasons, and it must be removed before you repaint.
Solution: Scrape away the loose paint with a putty knife or paint scraper. Apply a thin coat of spackle to the edges of the chipped paint, using a putty knife. Allow it to dry. Sand the area with 150- grit sandpaper, creating a smooth transition between bare wall and surrounding painted surfaces. Wipe clean with a damp sponge. Spot-prime the area with polyvinyl acrylic (PVA) primer.

 

FILLING SMALL NAIL HOLES

  1. Using a putty knife or your finger, force a small amount of drywall compound or spackle into the hole, filling it completely. Scrape the area smooth with the putty knife and let dry (see photo left).

  2. Sand the area lightly with 150-grit sandpaper. Wipe clean with a damp sponge, let dry, and dab on PV A primer.

 

 

 

 

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